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Other detainees refused to accept the British demand that they sully other people's reputations by naming those whom they knew to be involved in Mau Mau.
This 'hard core' kept their mouths closed, and languished for years in detention. The battle behind the wire was not fought over detainees' loyalty to a Mau Mau movement.
Detainees' intellectual and moral concerns were always close to home. British officials thought that those who confessed had broken their allegiance to Mau Mau.
But what moved detainees to confess was not their broken loyalty to Mau Mau, but their devotion to their families. British officials played on this devotion to hasten a confession.
The battle behind the wire was not fought between patriotic hard-core Mau Mau and weak-kneed, wavering, broken men who confessed. Both hard core and soft core had their families in mind.
The Times. It is debatable whether Peter Kenyatta was sympathetic to Mau Mau in the first place and therefore whether he truly switched sides.
Baring informed Lennox-Boyd that eight European officers were facing accusations of a series of murders, beatings and shootings. They included: "One District Officer, murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African.
See also n. Anderson , p. The quote is of the colony's director of medical services. Schemes of medical help, however desirable and however high their medical priority, could not in [these] circumstances be approved".
The quote is of Baring. The Journal of African History. Journal of African Economies. Solis 15 February Cambridge University Press. Britain's gulag: the brutal end of empire in Kenya.
British colonial rule, violence and the historians of Mau Mau". The Round Table. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana: pp.
Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 December Seth Amsterdam: Fredonia Books. This episode is not mentioned in histories of the Mau Mau revolt, suggesting that such incidents were rare.
The post-colonial state must therefore be seen as a representation of the interests protected and promoted during the latter years of colonial rule.
Under Jomo Kenyatta, the post-colonial state represented a 'pact-of-domination' between transnational capital, the elite and the executive.
It was not that Mau Mau won its war against the British; guerrilla movements rarely win in military terms; and militarily Mau Mau was defeated.
But in order to crown peace with sustainable civil governance—and thus reopen a prospect of controlled decolonization—the British had to abandon 'multiracialism' and adopt African rule as their vision of Kenya's future.
The blood of Mau Mau, no matter how peculiarly ethnic in source and aim, was the seed of Kenya's all-African sovereignty.
Parliamentary debates. The Economic Times. The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 May The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 February The Independent.
Retrieved 12 April Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 18 March Sir Evelyn Baring, the Governor of Kenya, in a telegram to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, reported allegations of extreme brutality made against eight European district officers.
They included 'assault by beating up and burning of two Africans during screening [interrogation]' and one officer accused of 'murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African'.
No action was taken against the accused. Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 6 April A letter was sent to William Hague on March 31 stating: 'The Republic of Kenya fully supports the claimants' case and has publicly denied any notion that responsibility for any acts and atrocities committed by the British colonial administration during the Kenya 'Emergency' was inherited by the Republic of Kenya.
Squaring up to the seamier side of empire is long overdue". Retrieved 27 July Mark Thompson 7 April These new documents were withheld because they were considered to be particularly sensitive, so we can but imagine what will be in these documents.
Senior members of the Commonwealth Office in London did know what was happening; senior legal officials in London did , to some extent, sanction the use of coercive force; and also, at Cabinet level, the Secretary of State for the Colonies certainly knew of the excesses that were taking place.
The quote is of Anderson. Financial Times. Retrieved 9 April In a statement to the court dated March 8, released to The Times yesterday, Martin Tucker, head of corporate records at the Foreign Office, reported that the 13 missing boxes could not be found.
He found evidence that the files had once been stored in the basement of the Old Admiralty Building in Whitehall, but traces of them had vanished after Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 22 March Under Kenyatta many became influential members of the new government.
This system of loyalist patronage percolated all the way down to the local level of government, with former Home Guards dominating bureaucracies that had once been the preserve of the young British colonial officers in the African districts.
Of the numerous vacancies created by decolonization—powerful posts like provincial commissioner and district commissioner—the vast majority were filled by one time loyalists.
Archived from the original pdf on 9 October Constitution of Kenya, National Council for Law Reporting. Article 9, p. The national days.
The Standard. Nairobi: Standard Group. Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 7 June Changing Kenyatta Day to Mashujaa Day is not just an innocuous and harmless exercise in constitutional semantics.
He acknowledged the part the freedom fighters had played in the struggle, but he never once made any public statement that conceded to them any rights or any genuine compensation.
Mau Mau was a thing best forgotten. In Kenyatta's Kenya there would be a deafening silence about Mau Mau". Adekson, J. Comparative Strategy.
Alam, S. Shamsul Rethinking the Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya. Anderson, David Cambridge: University Press, African Affairs.
CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link ——— History Today. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Andrew, Christopher London: Allen Lane.
Atieno-Odhiambo, Elisha Stephen Oxford: James Currey. Berman, Bruce Canadian Journal of African Studies. CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Blacker, John Branch, Daniel CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link ———; Cheeseman, Nicholas Review of African Political Economy.
CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Brantley, Cynthia The Giriama and Colonial Resistance in Kenya, — Carothers, John Colin Geneva: World Health Organization.
Carter, Morris; et al. London: Government Printer. Chappell, Stephen RUSI Journal. Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Clough, Marshall S.
Coray, Michael S. Agricultural History. Corfield, Frank Nairobi: Government of Kenya. Curtis, Mark London: Vintage.
Edgerton, Robert B. Mau Mau: An African Crucible. Elkins, Caroline US edition ——— London: Jonathan Cape.
CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link UK edition ——— The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.
CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Ellis, John . The Social History of the Machine Gun. Emerson Welch, Claude Anatomy of Rebellion.
French, David The British Way in Counter-Insurgency, — Oxford: Oxford University Press. Füredi, Frank The Mau Mau War in Perspective. London: I.
CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Gerlach, Christian Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Grogan, Ewart S. London: Hurst and Blackett.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Kanogo, Tabitha Dedan Kimathi: A Biography. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.
Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau, — CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Lapping, Brian End of Empire revised ed.
London: Paladin. Leys, Norman Kenya 4th ed. London: Frank Cass. Lonsdale, John Journal of African Cultural Studies.
CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list link Mahone, Sloan Majdalany, Fred Maloba, Wunyabari O. Maxon, Robert M.
McCulloch, Jock . Colonial Psychiatry and "the African Mind" revised ed. Meinertzhagen, Richard Kenya Diary, — Get Word of the Day delivered to your inbox!
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